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Clump-forming thornless bamboos, up to 5m tall, with very many branches from culms up to 1.5cm in diameter, found from 1,000m to 2,200m in subtropical forests, and also cultivated. Leaves have no cross-veins (fig. 30), and culm internodes are less than 40cm long. Branch buds at the nodes of the culms are shorter than their height, and are always open (fig. 31). The buds have many small initials visible, which will produce up to 70 branches at each node, about 25 growing in the first year. The branches are quite uniform in size and  spread  around  the  culm  (fig.  32).  When



growing strongly, the upper half of the culm sheaths are very narrow, and the culm sheath ligules are long and ragged. The sheaths are always rough inside at the top, and this distinguishes them from Himalayacalamus species. Rhizomes are short and solid, less than 30cm in length, and similar to those of Thamnocalamus and Borinda. Inflorescences are paniculate on curving branchlets. The culms are valuable for weaving, and the foliage is often fed to animals or browsed in the forest. The new shoots are very bitter.  

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